As part of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (the “Recovery Act”), Congress directed the Federal Trade Commission (“FTC”) and the Department of Health and Human Services (“HHS”) to issue rules requiring certain entities to notify consumers if there has been a breach in the security of their personal health information.
The FTC rule applies to vendors of personal health records, which provide online repositories for storage and tracking of health information, and entities that offer third-party applications for personal health records. These applications could include, for example, a blood pressure cuff whose readings consumers can upload to their personal health record.
The HHS rule, developed by the Office for Civil Rights (OCR), applies to healthcare providers and other HIPAA covered entities.
Under the rules, those entities subject to either rule must notify consumers if there is a “breach” involving their “unsecured” health information. Additionally, if a service provider or business associate of one of the entities has a breach of its own, it must notify the entity, which in turn must notify consumers.
A “breach” is defined as the unauthorized acquisition, access, use, or disclosure of protected health information, which results in the compromise of the security or privacy of such information.
Entities that secure their electronic health records through encryption or destruction are not required to provide notification in the event of a breach, as long as they follow HHS guidance on the proper methods of securing information. As an accompaniment to its rule, HHS issued an update to its current guidance (PDF) on acceptable encryption and destruction methodologies, which would render sensitive information unusable to unauthorized individuals. The policy on encryption is technical in nature and entities would be well-advised to have their IT consultants carefully review, and as deemed necessary, implement the HHS guidance.